Leukemia is a severe malignant blood disease. The disease does not imply age restrictions. This type of cancer affects even infants. According to statistics, white-skinned people are more likely to suffer from leukemia, in contrast to representatives of the black race. It is worth familiarizing yourself with the types of leukemia, the symptoms and features of chemotherapy.
Types of leukemia
There are different types of leukemia. Among them:
- acute lymphocytic leukemia;
- acute myeloid or myelogenous leukemia;
- chronic lymphocytic leukemia;
- chronic myeloid or myelogenous leukemia.
Lymphocytic leukemia affects lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Myeloid leukemia can affect white blood cells, platelets, and red blood cells.
Leukemia is accompanied by painful symptoms, which depend on the type of oncology, stage. The signs include:
- pain in bones, joints;
- enlarged lymph nodes, liver, spleen;
- decrease in resistance of immunity to infections;
- meningitis, encephalitis due to brain metastases;
- general intoxication of the body, fever, weight loss, weakness.
As leukemia progresses, the clinical picture increases.
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How is chemotherapy for leukemia performed
Based on the results of studies of the body of a patient with leukemia, one of the types of chemotherapy is prescribed. Each of the varieties has its own characteristics.
- Oral intake of a full course of drugs, containing the necessary chemicals. Therapy is carried out at home or on the basis of a hospital. This type is usually prescribed for chronic leukemia.
- Intravenous administration of medicines on an outpatient basis or within the walls of a hospital.
- Intrathecal chemotherapy, which involves the introduction of drugs into the spine in the presence of signs of cell mutation in the cerebrospinal fluid.
- High-dose chemotherapy, in which drugs are administered through a special catheter into the thoracic or cervical artery. To avoid injury to the vessel and extensive bleeding, the patient wears a catheter for the entire duration of therapy. This greatly simplifies the introduction of prescribed solutions.
- Chemotherapy using the Ommaya reservoir. This is a special catheter that is inserted under the scalp. He is there for the entire duration of therapy. More often, the method is used to treat children with leukemia.
The specific type of chemotherapy courses for leukemia with cytostatic drugs depends on the characteristics of the body, the stage of development of the disease, and other factors. Usually, the choice of chemotherapy technology depends on the results of laboratory tests of a person. They help to clearly choose the optimal dosage, schedule and duration of the course of drug administration.